This is a tensile strength method,Which measure maximum strength of fabric & elongation of the fabric.This is a grab method, Which mean center part of specimen grip and apply load up to break & then measure maximum load & elongation at that point.
This test method covers the grab and modified grab test procedures for
determining the breaking strength and elongation of most textile
The grab test procedure is applicable to woven, non woven, and felted
fabrics, while the modified grab test procedure is used primarily for
The grab test procedure in this test method for the determination of
breaking force and elongation is considered satisfactory for acceptance
testing of commercial shipments of most woven or nonwoven textile
fabrics, and the modified grab test procedure is considered satisfactory
for acceptance testing of commercial shipments of most woven textile
fabrics, since the procedures have been used extensively in the trade
for acceptance testing.
This test method is not recommended for knitted fabrics because of their high stretch.
Comparison of results from tensile testing machines operating on
different principles is not recommended. When different types of
machines are used for comparison testing, constant-time-to-break at 20 ± 3 s is the established way of producing data. Even then the data may differ significantly.
a constant-rate-of-extension is preferred in these procedures, in cases
of dispute, unless there is agreement to the contrary between the
purchaser and the supplier, a constant-time-to-break (20 ± 3 s) is to be used.
The grab test procedure is applicable to the determination of the effective strength of
the fabric; that is, the strength of the yarns in a specific width
together with the fabric assistance from the adjacent yarns. The
breaking force determined by the grab procedure is not a reflection of
the strength of the yarns actually gripped between clamps and cannot be
used for direct comparison with yarn strength determinations. Grab test
specimens require much less time to prepare although they require more
fabric per specimen. There is no simple relationship between grab tests
and strip tests since the amount of fabric assistance depends on the
type of fabric and construction variables.
The modified grab test procedure is applicable to the determination of
the breaking force of fabrics with constructions in which the
application of tensile stress on raveled strip specimens produces
further unraveling. This test method is particularly applicable to
This test method is not recommended for glass fabrics, or for knitted
fabrics and other textile fabrics which have high stretch (more than 11
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before necking, which is when the specimen's cross-section starts to significantly contract. Tensile strength is the opposite of compressive strength and the values can be quite different.
The UTS is usually found by performing a tensile test and recording the stress versus strain; the highest point of the stress-strain curve is the UTS. It is an intensive property; therefore its value does not depend on the size of the test specimen. However, it is dependent on other factors, such as the preparation of the specimen, the presence or otherwise of surface defects, and the temperature of the test environment and material.
Tensile strengths are rarely used in the design of ductile members, but they are important in brittle members. They are tabulated for common materials such as alloys, composite materials, ceramics, plastics, and wood.
Tensile strength is defined as a stress, which is measured as force per unit area. For some non-homogeneous materials (or for assembled components) it can be reported just as a force or as a force per unit width. In the SI system, the unit is pascal (Pa) or, equivalently, newtons per square metre (N/m²). The customary unit is pounds-force per square inch (lbf/in² or psi), or kilo-pounds per square inch (ksi), which is equal to 1000 psi; kilo-pounds per square inch are commonly used for convenience when measuring tensile strengths
Tensile properties indicate how the material will react to forces being applied in tension. A tensile test is a fundamental mechanical test where a carefully prepared specimen is loaded in a very controlled manner while measuring the applied load and the elongation of the specimen over some distance. Tensile tests are used to determine the modulus of elasticity, elastic limit, elongation, proportional limit, reduction in area, tensile strength, yield point, yield strength and other tensile properties.